Education in Third World

With the daily challenges posed by economic difficulty and other threats, governments in developing countries are working very hard to ensure that their educational institutions continue to provide a standard of education that can make its citizens at part with the educated people in more economically sound countries. To a certain extent, these Third World countries have succeeded in their crusade for quality education. The problem is that a good education comes with a price and it is often a price that many people in Third World countries are not able to pay. So, although quality education is available, it is still unreachable for a large segment of a developing country's population.

Certainly, it is impressive to see that developing countries have educational institutions that are world-class and which offer education that can rival that provided by wealthier nations around the world. There is a clear recognition of the role that education plays in overcoming hardship and poverty. However elusive it may be, a good education is still viewed as the best way to a better life.

Among the developing countries that have superb educational systems are such "emerging markets" as Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey, the Philippines, Egypt, South Africa, Malaysia, Thailand, much of South America and several of the Persian Gulf Arab States.

Obviously, the poorest of the poor in these countries will have a hard time getting into the best schools in their vicinity. Of course, there are always scholarship programs available but these are few. Besides, people at the lowest spectrum of the economic scale are more concerned with more pressing issues related to their mere survival such as where to find food and money for clothing and shelter. After these basic needs are met, that is the only time that parents can really focus on their children's schooling. In fact, studies indicate that once their basic economic needs are met, the first priority of most poor families is how to send their children to a good school.

India recently launched EDUSAT, an educational program aimed at giving quality education to even its poorest citizens. Among the group's first initiatives is the development of a $100 laptop which the government hopes to distribute by 2007 to public schools all over the country.

Management Continuing Education for Professional Engineers

Are you like many engineers; highly trained to solve technical problems but not as confident with your people skills? There is a big difference between engineering design and business management. In the engineering profession engineers are constantly studying to stay current on the latest technologies and engineering strategies. For many engineers it is extremely difficult to transition from engineer to manager. Since business and management are not usually classes in engineering college, engineers are expected to obtain their business skills through experience and continuing education. Unless you have a MBA, you will probably find it difficult to locate qualified continuing education sources with management courses tailored for engineers.

Most of the State Licensing Boards require Professional Engineers to renew their professional licenses periodically with a minimum number of continuing education units. These units are usually Professional Development Hours (PDH) or Continuing Education Units (CEU). One PDH is equivalent to one hour of course education, and one CEU is equivalent to ten PDH or ten hours of course education. To obtain these units of continuing education the professional engineer will attend or teach the seminars, classes, or courses, write articles, or sit on professional boards or committees. The majority of engineers obtain their credits by attending conferences or seminars.

Nearly all of the states that require continuing education credits accept business or managerial courses as long as they are related to engineering. In other words you can not take a class in "How to start your own Retail Business" and expect to receive continuing education credit for renewing your professional engineering license. But you can take a course in "Engineering Business Marketing Techniques" and receive full credit.

In addition, most State Licensure Boards do not pre-approve courses for continuing education credit. This responsibility is usually left to the engineer to understand the state codes and to screen the courses appropriately. The Board will either accept or decline the courses after the engineer has submitted the license renewal application and listed the completed and credits received.

Engineering managerial courses can include topics on Engineering Business Plan, Engineering Operations, Engineering Marketing, Financials, Proposals, Leadership, and many others. To acquire the necessary continuing education units, engineers can find these courses in the following sources;

Community College and University Continuing Education Courses - These institutions regularly offer courses on numerous topics. Since the courses have to appeal to a wide audience, they usually do not cover technical topics that would be of interest to engineers. You can find business topics, but these courses are very general. Management courses that can apply to engineers my have words like "professional services" and "technical industry" in the course title.

Vendor Seminar (Lunch Presentation) - This has been one my favorite sources. It usually starts by a product vendor giving you a call. He will ask if you would be interested in a presentation at your office. If you are interested you may say "Yes, but I will need for the presentation to be made at my office during lunch our hour. The attendees will be my engineers and designers, and I will need for you to bring lunch." Your team will listen to the vendor's presentation, review his products and literature, ask technical questions, and enjoy lunch. Each of your Professional Engineers gains about 0.5 PDH.

On-the-Job Training - Some firms actually have monthly training sessions for their engineers and support staff. The subjects can be on a wide array of technical, ethical, and managerial topics. As long as the subject covered, who made the presentation, who attended the training, date of the training session, and time spent training is documented, these sessions can count as continuing education.

Seminars - These courses are often held in a hotel conference room for a few hours to several days. Usually the courses offer continuing education credit of 8 PDH per day. If you have to travel to attend the seminar, your additional expenses beyond the cost of the seminar will include lodging, air fares, rental car, and dining. A three-day course can easily exceed several thousands dollars. Also take into account that during this time you will not be working on any contracts, your company will loss billable hours.

Convention and Conferences - These events offers the attendee a multitude of course topics. Attending one four-day convention, you can easily obtain all of the continuing education credits needed to renew your professional license. Like seminars if the convention is away from your home town, you will have additional expenses including lodging, air fares, rental car, and dining. Also since you are away from your office, you will loss billable hours. Again, a convention can cost you or your office thousands of dollars.

Home Study Courses - These courses have been around for a long time; long before the computer. The course material is sent to your home. You study the material, answer the quiz, and return the quiz. A week or two later a Course Completion certificate is sent to you. These types of course are being replaced by Online Courses as discussed below.

Online Seminars - This is becoming a very popular program. Seminars that are online are often quite a bit less expensive than actually attending a seminar. Not only are the courses cheaper, but the attendee also saves due to no traveling, lodging, dining, or other expenses. Of course, the attendee will have to find a quite area to sit-up the computer and speakers, and to post a sign on the door saying "Do Not Disturb". Once the seminar is completed you receive a Certificate of Completion with the number of PDH or CEU earned.

Online Courses - These courses are much like the home study course but everything is done over the internet. You can take the course 24/7, and you usually have instant access to the quiz and the certificate of completion. These courses are the most economical and convenient for the engineer. You can just about study any topic; technical, ethical, or managerial. Most websites tend toward the technical topics. While only a few websites specialize in the business of engineering. Since most of these courses are written by engineers, it is understandable that most of the courses are technical.

Most engineers have excellent technical skills, but not necessarily the same level of expertise in business management and marketing. It is the responsibility of the engineer to develop these management skills through continuing education. Continuing education can be obtained through Community Colleges, Universities, Professional Training Programs, Professional Organizations, and online training courses. In most states continuing education courses qualify for continuing education units (CEU) or Professional Development Hours (PDH).

In this article we have discussed the different sources for engineering continuing education. The transition from engineer to manager can be difficult, but there are resources available to obtain the necessary knowledge. Acquiring the necessary management skills can be the difference between a good and a bad manager.

Educational Perennialism Philosophy

Perennialists are those who think that one should educate others with the things that one considers as perpetual significance to all people the world over. They suppose that the most significant subjects build up a person. And because aspects of fact are constantly changing, these are not the most significant. Thus, one should focus on principles, and not on facts. And because people are human, one should concentrate first on being human, and as not machines or methods to be used. Because people are people first, and workers are secondary if at all, one should focus on teaching liberal topics initially, and not to concentrate on educational topics.

Scientific reasoning is a specific method with modern perennialists thinking that it should be taught first instead of the facts. They may demonstrate the reasoning with the primary descriptions of popular experiments. This provides the students with a human side to the scientific discipline, and demonstrates the reasoning in deed. Most significantly, it illustrates the vagueness and wrong techniques of true science.

Though perennialism may emerge the same as essentialism, perennialism first concentrates on personal progress, while essentialism first concentrates on using necessary skills. Essentialist programs therefore are inclined to be much more educational and based on facts, and extremely less broadminded and based on principles. Both philosophies are characteristically believed to be teacher-focused, as against to student-focused philosophies of education like progressivism. Nevertheless, because teachers are linked with perennialism they are in a way the instigators of the Western works of art, they may welcome student criticism through the related Socratic method, which, if taught as the right dialogue, creates a balance between students and the teacher that promotes the dialogue.

Perennialists also think that reading is to be balanced off with common investigations and modestly-directed dialogues with the use of the Socratic method so as to create a traditionally oriented comprehension of notions. They dispute that precise, autonomous reasoning differentiates the educated mind and they therefore explains the progress of this facility. A trained teacher would maintain discussions on subject and right the errors in approaches, but it would be the students and not the teacher, that would arrive at the conclusions. Without directing the class to a conclusion, the teacher may put some effort to precisely devise problems within the range of the texts being deliberated.

While the normal argument for making use of a modern text sustains refinement of details into a structure which is pertinent to contemporary society, perennialists believe that lots of the past discussions and the development of notions offered by the great books are significant to any civilization, and therefore the suitability of the great books for teaching is indifferent to their age.

The most old-fashioned, conventional, or unbendable of the five philosophies is perennialism, which is a philosophy that draws a lot from traditional characterizations of education. Perennialists think that education, just like the human nature, is invariable. Since the distinctive characteristic of humans is the capacity to reason out, education should concentrate on building up rationality. For the perennialist, education means preparing for life, and students should learn of the world's stability with the use of structured study.

IELTS Speaking Topics - Top 10 Possible Topics

Possible IELTS speaking topics that will help you prepare for the IELTS Exam.

It is very important that students preparing for the IELTS practice a lot of IELTS speaking topics before taking the exam. In this way, students can be confident and can face the exam much more easily. The speaking module of the IELTS is a test of the student's communication skills. The interviewer observes if the student can interact and communicate effectively. Students need to speak in clear, concise sentences and focus on the topic. To help students learn more about IELTS speaking topics, a few examples of the possible topics are listed below:

1. A brief introduction of the student. Introduce yourself but keep it short and try to build rapport with the examiner.

2. Describe your native place and what do you like about it?

3. Contrast the features of your home town with any other place. Only use a few key points that you are most familiar with and can talk about comfortably.

4. Speak about the current education system in your country? What are the pros and cons? keep to the main points only and ensure you points are clear.

5. How will you change the education system? Give points and reasons for your points.

6. Describe your work place? What is your position and how do you contribute to the overall performance of the company?

7. Describe the employment process in your country.

8. Discuss about the roles of men and women in your country.

9. What is your opinion about brain-drain? How do you think it will affect the overall economy of a country?

10. Which is the one country you desire to visit and what makes it special? Try and come up with some interesting answers as so often the answers are so common that they be boring.

Continuing Education Psychologists Need

Being in the field of psychology necessitates knowledge in a variety of areas. Continuing education psychologists need is often required for them to keep their license if they have a clinical practice. If you are in this field you may even be a teacher. Much of the knowledge gained with a psychology degree is very important for teachers.

If you are a teacher with a degree in the field of psychology then you are not likely to be required to take the same type of continuing education psychologists are required to have. This does not mean that you as a teacher should ignore expanding your knowledge. The school where you work may require some continued learning anyway. Being a teacher is a field that necessitates a broad range of knowledge even if you are only teaching one subject.

Even though you may already have a psychology degree, as a teacher it would not hurt to learn even more in this field. Working with kids can do a number on the brain of a teacher. It is important for a teacher to really understand his or her students and the age group that they are teaching. Knowing the different stages of how students think will help you a great deal as a teacher. Courses in continuing education psychologists need might be a benefit to you as a teacher as well.

Taking these courses will also look good on your resume in case you decide to change directions in your career. You could have the opportunity to become a social worker, counselor, or even a psychologist. The more courses that you have under your belt in this field, the better it will look to prospective employers.

As a teacher, you should also be reading all of the time. You could do some of this reading in topics of psychology to help you have more insight into your students. Some institutes that offer courses in continuing education psychologists use may also offer a magazine with topics in psychology and even in other topics that pertain to what you need to learn. Getting a subscription to one of these magazines may be helpful for you so that you do not have to necessarily take a course.

If you think you are too busy for extra courses, you may be right. Teachers can be very busy with making tests, grading papers, as well as having the extra-curricular activities that often come up. If you do have an hour a day though that is free, you probably have time for an online class. You might not even have to do an hour a day. You might have more time in one day, and you may be able to put in more time during that day.

Mental Health Continuing Education Formats

No matter which health care field you are in, you will find that you must pursue education after college and post-college training in order to maintain your competitive edge and often to become certified as well. If you need mental health continuing education, you will find a wide range of formats available to you. By choosing the format that best fits your schedule, you can continue to meet the needs of your patients while pursuing the education vital to your career.

Online Courses

Online courses offer one of the most convenient ways to pursue a new certification or simply refresh your mind about topics important to your career field. Online mental health continuing education allows you to study on your own time schedule. If you need to be in the office for a 12-hour day, you can postpone study for the next day when you have few patients scheduled. You can read or listen to a lecture on your lunch break, or you can finish the entire course in a short time frame to earn your credits quickly. If flexibility is what you need, the online courses will work well.

Evening Classes

Some times the best way to ensure that you get the mental health continuing education that you need is to sign up for an evening class or two. Set aside one or two evenings a week, dedicate them as time spent furthering your training, and then use those evenings to attend a course at a college in your area. It may take a while to earn a certificate or complete a degree on this schedule, but you should be able to get enough credits to maintain your certification, while still keeping your schedule free to help your patients.


Seminars provide mental health continuing education in a condensed format. Instead of returning to the university week after week, you set aside a day or two to hear speakers talk about hot topics in the psychotherapy field. You come away with a wealth of information covering many topics, as well as a few credits to add to your resume. When you attend a seminar, the time spent away from the office yields valuable information and practical tools you can bring back to the clinic to implement with your patients.

Online Seminars

Sometimes the best speakers and trainers do not come to your area. Rather than traveling long distances to find a seminar, see if you can find online seminars, or "webinars" that cover the topics you need to learn more about. This combines the flexibility of online coursework with the condensed training found in a seminar. Best of all, you do not have to leave home to earn your mental health continuing education credits.

Each of these formats has benefits and drawbacks. Some require an ongoing time commitment, while others may require you to close up shop for a few days. You must weigh these benefits and drawbacks carefully as you decide which format for training best fits your needs.

The Importance of Continuing Legal Education

Paralegals are required to maintain a certain number of hours of continuing legal education ("CLE") in order to comply with state regulations and/or requirements based on advanced paralegal certification through a national organization, such as NALA or NFPA. If a paralegal fails to maintain the required CLE hours, that paralegal is no longer in good standing and cannot be identified as a paralegal or work in that capacity. However, the legal profession is not the only profession that requires continuing education. Across the board, almost every career that requires a higher level of education, training, and experience will call for continuing education that is consistent with the level of knowledge required for that career.

Clearly, for the individual, the main motivating drive to participate in continuing education is to comply with the legal requirements of the profession in order to remain in good standing and maintain your employment. However, there are other very important reasons to participate in continuing education in any field.

Protection of the public is one cornerstone for most professional continuing education programs. Just as an attorney is required to maintain MCLE credit, the supervising attorney of a paralegal is responsible to protect the public by ensuring that the paralegal demonstrates command of the area of practice that the attorney provides to the public. Public protection is not assured simply because an individual completed the education, training, and experience required to become a paralegal, or advanced paralegal. The ever changing legal system, rules, and technology demands that a paralegal continually learn and improve their knowledge and skills throughout their professional career.

Personal growth is another very important aspect of participating in continuing legal education. By failing to keep abreast of the current legal issues and trends, the paralegal falls into the trap of becoming stagnant and repetitive. On the other side of this coin, participation in a wide range of continuing education topics will broaden the paralegal's understanding of different legal concepts, technology, and methods that otherwise may be missed.

Continuing education is an investment in a paralegal's future. It is important to never stop striving to achieve the pinnacle of your career. If you are a paralegal, take the next step by earning an advanced paralegal certification. Studies show that:

~ A person with a higher education and career level has a higher earning capacity.
~ A person who has a higher education and advanced certification will be selected for employment over those who do not.
~ A person who is continually learning new things about their chosen career is a more valuable employee to an employer, and more likely to have more job security.
~ A person who is continually learning has a higher level of responsibility and job satisfaction.
~ A person who remains dormant in their learning will in time lose their skills and fall behind in their career.
~ A person who is continually learning remains competitive in the job market.

Therefore, invest in your career by updating your knowledge and skills that will improve your professional competence and value to your employer. It is the key to optimizing your professional growth throughout your professional life.

Idea Organizers Help Writers Generate Topics For Writing

For English majors, every concentrated class involves in-depth writing. Writing projects are usually diverse and can be based on a variety of writing styles. But regardless of the writing format, the student will have to explore several ideas before making a commitment. This can be a challenge for some students. There are many ways that can help organize ideas. One pre-writing strategy that aids in organizing, exploring, and planning ideas is using idea organizers.

Clusters or webs are usually used for brainstorming, exploring, and organizing information. Webs work from a central idea from which details are extracted. The preferred graphic form for clusters is a circle. The topic is written in a center circle; other circles, with details about the topic, are linked to the center circle. You can add more details to each preceding circle by adding more circles.

Inverted triangles are typically used to help narrow down topics that are too big or too general. The form of choice for this organizer is, of course, an upside down triangle. The triangle includes four to five lined sections. At the topic section of the triangle is the broad topic. The second section below it should include one part of the broad topic. The third section should include one part of the second topic. Keep unraveling topics until you find one to focus on.

If you are writing a story, story maps help you gather details about various elements of story, including setting, characters, and the plot. The story map diagram starts with the name of the story at the top, circled. Lines from the circle are linked to three-square boxes below it - one for notes on setting, one for plot/conflict, and one for characters. The three boxes are linked to a rectangular box, which includes information about the various events within the story. This box is connected to the outcome/resolution box.

Observation charts organize sensory details. The five-column chart is used to list details that are associated with the five senses. This information helps when writing compositions that require a lot of imagery like short stores, plays, and other dramatic pieces. List details for your senses (sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell) in separate columns. Organizing imagery information, by way of observation charts, helps the writer bring to life visual imagery in a story.

When doing a comparison of two groups, it is best to organize information using T-charts. This organizer lists details about two people, places, or things. They are also a good resource for showing two sides of an argument, comparing and contrasting, or showing points of view. A T-chart is easy to make. Draw a large "T" and write your subjects at the top left and right sections. Then, list your information in the column below each subject.

When planning to write a speech or a debate, you may want to use a persuasion map to help you plan convincing arguments. When creating this map, you begin by stating the goal or the action that you want your audience to take in a box. Next, you link three boxes to the goal and include three reasons why your audience should do what you are suggesting (one reason per box). Each "reason" box is linked to three separate boxes that list facts and examples that elaborate your reasons.

Continuing CNA Education - The Employers Role

Once someone receives Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) certification, the educational process does not end. Most states require that each CNA complete a certain number of hours of additional training each year in order to renew a certificate. Since the medical facility cannot continue a CNAs employment if their certification expires, it is in the facilities best interest to aide employees in obtaining the necessary training and education.

It is the facility that benefits to have their CNAs current on issues of new medical techniques, laws, equipment, and social issues. Some states will require some of the training be in a particular area while other states leave it up to the CNA to decide they topics they cover while continuing their education training. Topics include HIV/AIDS infection control, medical records requirements, medication administration, and resident rights.

A medical facility can also require that CNAs get additional training in particular topics specifically relevant to the facility as a condition of continued employment. Continuing education courses and workshops can be offered in-house or made easier to access. There are a number of ways to make this happen.

· Offer online courses employees can complete on their own time and at their convenience
· Provide home study courses on DVD or as written material
· Subsidize all or part of a college course tuition and fees
· Provide in-service training at the facility

Many educational programs are available today that provide continuing education to medical personnel. The medical facility can contract with a local community college or Allied Health school to provide ongoing CNA training. Or the facility may pay a university instructor to hold seminars in the medical facility.

Do not forget your own qualified staff! There is a treasure trove of knowledge and experience within every facility. Registered nurses, physicians, and technicians can provide accredited certification training in many cases if they are also faculty at a medical or nursing school. The number of hours of certification training needed depends on the state requirements.

The classes offered to upgrade CNA skills do not have to only be offered for certification renewal purposes. A medical facility needs the assurance that medical staff is always technologically and skills current. Thanks to modern research methods, new procedures and treatments are introduced regularly.

Physical Therapy Continuing Education Courses - Rehab Your Career

As a healthcare professional, you are used to helping patients regain abilities and get their lives back on track. When it comes to meeting your own career goals, that same dedicated work ethic will serve you well. There are several ways to enhance your knowledge and skill level through physical therapy continuing education courses.

Higher Degrees

Transitional degrees for PT come in a couple of varieties. If you have earned your bachelor's, you can use this type of program to get your master's. Do you already have your BS/MS? Consider taking the final step by achieving a doctorate degree. Becoming a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) puts you on equal footing with other highly educated medical professionals. It also assures your clients that they are receiving the best possible care.

Distance learning options (with most of the coursework presented online) are available for earning these degrees. Some physical therapy continuing education courses feature interactive online tools that allow you to communicate with peers and faculty. This way, you don't miss out on an important aspect of the learning experience. Many institutions allow you to take a Physical Therapy Evaluation Test (PTET) prior to admission. Your curriculum will then be tailored to address the areas where your knowledge and experience need to be supplemented.


If you don't plan to spend your career as a generalist, there is no time like the present to select your specialty. There are lots of factors to take into consideration. Do you love working with kids? Pediatric therapy gives you the opportunity to help children navigate the world and overcome physical challenges as they grow.

With the baby boomer generation passing the 50 year mark, geriatric PT is the wave of the future. Over the next several decades, the patient demographic in the U.S. is going to feature a higher percentage of aging individuals than at any other time in history. This doesn't just mean you will have a large client base. It also means advanced research will be focused on serving these patients. If keeping up to date with the latest PT techniques and treatments excites you, geriatrics is the place to be.

Physical therapy continuing education courses cover these specialties as well as orthopedic, neurological, and cardiopulmonary PT.

Additional Educational Topics

Keeping yourself in good health is an important part of being a physical therapist. Classes that cover workplace safety, ergonomics, and stress management can help you and your colleagues avoid injury and burnout on the job. Infection control, ethics, and medical error reduction are other important topics that can be addressed through CE. These physical therapy continuing education courses are required curriculum in some states because they promote best practices and better patient care.